This article concentrates on the slave trade of people from Eastern Europe, Balkans, and Asia Minor/Byzantium: Remember, Mohammad (allah) demanded jihad/war until all the religion is allah’s—it cannot go away and nor can the associated slavery and dhimmitude. (see comments from 20th century Muslims and others on the ongoing desire for jihad Bostom p 94-104). Both Ottoman Turkey and Shiite Iran openly practised slavery in the 20th century. The last Ottoman sultan had a British captive in his harem, 20th century (Khan p325). Slavery continues throughout the Islamic world today and is brought by Muslims into the west.
Europe, Asia Minor, the Balkans etc were initially attacked by Arab Muslims, then Muslim Turks and Tartars attacked central and eastern Europe (11th-15th century), Muslim Tartars attacked Poland and Muscovite Russia (15th-17th century); and Asia Minor was attacked by Seljuk and Ottoman Turks (11th-15thC ) while Persia, Armenia, and Georgia were attacked by many Muslim groups including Shiite Safavids.
From the 11th century, particularly as Arab power was waning, the Turks moved out into the middle-east eg Syria, Palestine and spread through Asia Minor (much of today’s Turkey) to North Africa and into the Balkans/Eastern Europe.
Islamic slavery, destruction, conquest and dhimmitude
Bat Ye’r notes:
“The two waves of Muslim expansion, the Arab from the seventh century and the Turkish from 4 centuries later-are remarkably similar....the great Arab and Turkish conquerors used the same military tactics and the same policies of consolidating Islamic power. This continuity resulted from the fact that the conquests took place within the framework of the common ideology of jihad and the administrative and judicial apparatus of the sharia- a uniformity that defies time, since it adapts itself to diverse lands and peoples, being integrated into the internal coherence of a political theology. In the course of their military operation, the Turks applied to the conquered populations the rules of jihad, which had been structured 4 centuries earlier by the Arabs and enshrined in Islamic sacred law. (Bostom p 60)”
In Anatolia (Asia Minor/Turkey), the Islamic frontier, during the 11th and 12 th centuries, ‘warriors of Islam’(ghazi) came to fight infidels and obtain booty in the Seljuk and Ottoman Turk jihad campaigns. These groups, including nomadic tribes were champions of Islam, dedicated to fighting the infidels around them.
“the ideal of gaza, holy war. Was an important factor in the foundation and development of the Ottoman state.,....continuous expansion of Dar al-Islam....until they conquered the whole world.” (contemporary Turkish scholar of Ottoman history, Halil Inalcik ...Bostom p 61)
“From the very beginning....the Turks tried to consolidate their position by the forcible imposition of Islam. If (the Ottoman historian) Sukrullah is to be believed, those who refused to accept the Moslem faith were slaughtered and their families enslaved. “Where there were bells, Suleiman broke them up and cast them into fires. Where there were churches he destroyed them or converted them into mosques....” (quoted in Bostom p 63-64)
Dervishes worked to spread religious fervour, took part in military acts and were given land and privileges from rulers.
The conquest of Asia Minor occurred over 4 centuries. It took the Turks about 2 centuries to conquer the Balkans (today’s Slovenia, Serbia, Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, European part of Turkey, Bosnia-Herzegovina) with incalculable ruin of material goods, massacre, enslavement, exile, destruction of farming, destruction of trade, depopulation, reduced productivity, and destruction of the normal exchange of knowledge around the Mediterranean and through Christian and Jewish societies, plus colonisation by Muslims---as also occurred in the conquest of Asia Minor. The states of Byzantium, Bulgaria, Serbia...had reached a high level of economic and cultural development before the Muslim attacks. The conquest of the Balkan peoples was disastrous and for centuries trammelled their normal economic and social development (Angelov p 463) Yet it’s described as a blessing for the population (they had the chance to become Muslim) and we are fed lies of ‘peace’ and economic unity. The Turks didn’t have a ‘higher culture’ or better civic organisation—they were semibarbarian tribes bent of pillage and war, enriching themselves with ‘booty.’(estates, slaves, money, jewels) and rendered fanatical by the dogmas of Islam (Angelov p 463, 464, 465)
The conquest of the Balkan Peninsular by the Turks meant not only the massive destruction of productivity, the depopulation of the occupied regions, mass enslavement, and forced colonization, but also the founding of a new feudal system. This feudal system was the continuation, in a subsequent phase of development, of the Osmanli military feudalism that had been created in Asia Minor during the first half of the fourteenth century. In essence, this system did not modify the feudal ties that existed in the Balkan states at the time when they were conquered by the Turks, but compared with them, the system was at an inferior, barbarous level, having as its foundation brutal coercion and terror, since the Muslims had the privilege of resorting with impunity to violence against the Christian population and of subjecting it to unlimited exploitation. (Angelov p 506)
Even a brief look at the date list, part H in the slavery series, shows the violence and oppression by the Muslims!
Byzantine historian Georgius Pachymeres, a contemporary of the events in the 1262-82 invasion north of the meander, (Paphlagonia, Caria in Asia Minor) described the ruination of towns and monasteries, the fleeing population and the conversion of land into a ‘Scythian desert. ’ He notes indiscriminate massacres, large scale enslavement, the merciless crushing of any resistance and the death of the entire male population where people refused to surrender. (Angelov p465, 466)
Other contemporary writers note the same acts of sadism and destruction throughout the conquest by the Turks and indeed on conquered populations until the 20th century.
From the beginning of their conquests (ie Asia Minor), the emir’s family and clan/military leaders became the owners of vast tracts of land, slaves, towns and villages. The system of military fiefs (timaris) was developed. Some soldiers received land but had to remain in the military. Most however went to the rulers and military leaders.- one fifth went to the state/sultan just as Mohammad took a fifth for himself from the plunder and enslavement carried out by his crew. (The Koran demanded that Mohammad got a fifth even if he wasn’t actually in the raid –how convenient!!)
The incessant military campaigns fulfilled the desires of all to spread Islam and gain their just rewards of slaves and land. In depopulated areas, ‘slaves’ replaced local inhabitants in all areas of work/labour, and served in households and harems. Selling slaves enabled the seller to purchase precious objects from elsewhere. Slaves were a source of ‘wealth’ for soldiers encouraging further conquest. The 14th century Ottoman state had only a rudimentary economy with underdeveloped commerce and trades and money was rare. (Angelov p 485-487). Enslavement served to weaken nations as populations were depleted and moved. Mass enslavements are documented.
The remaining populations were severely exploited peasants who laboured for others and were subjected to excessive taxes and fines. Similarly artisans were needed so, despite the routine massacres and deportations, the military was used to stop people fleeing and force them to remain.(Angelov p 470-471). The feudal class of Turks learnt they needed to keep the peasants to benefit from their surplus value and become wealthy. Muslim Turks ruled but were a minority population particularly in the Balkans where most of the population remained Christian. Allowing people to remain Christian was not ‘kindness’or ‘tolerance’, it was a practical and economic necessity as the non-Muslim population could be charged higher taxes ( the humiliating jizya or poll tax is more than the zakat –Durie p 169-178), extra fines and charges etc plus, any sign of rebellion could be met with death for the community or enslavement or forced mass movement or taking more children. Hence ordinary people lived in fear and were reduced to a servile, destitute state without the means to resist under the repressive dhimmi laws while wealth went to their Muslim overlords and their agents. (see articles on dhimmitude laws this site)
Only during the brief period (1402-1413) of problems in the Turkish state did the Ottomans slow their enslavement but following 1413, taking slaves returned with a vengeance. (Angelov p 490). Eg 7,000 from Thessalonika in 1430 (Bulgaru p 567) In 1438, 60,000 Serbs were enslaved and taken to Anatolia (Sookhdeo p 268). Sources suggest that in the few years between 1436-1442, some 400,000 people were seized in the Balkans. Many of the captives died in forced marches towards Anatolia (Turkey) (Sookhdeo p 268). Contemporary chronicles note that the Ottomans reduced masses of the inhabitants of Greece, Romania, and the Balkans to slavery eg from Moree (1460)-70,000 and Transylvania (1438) - 60,000-70,000 and 300,000-600,000 from Hungary and 10,000 from Mytilene/Mitilini on Lesbos island (1462) (Bulgaru p 567) and so it continued (see timeline part H)!
The vicious destruction of Constantinople in 1453 shows the religious zeal of the Muslims, their hatred of Christians, massacres, destruction and pillage and of course, the enslavement of 50,000-60,000 people! (see part H for details
Slave trading centres existed in many areas eg the Turkish state (Adrianople/Edirne) and Balkan Peninsula, Crete, Cyprus, Catalogna, Syria and Italy eg Ancona. Slaves were shackled, marched and any lagging behind were killed (Bulgaru p 568)
Jobs for slaves:
Lovely boys and girls plus gold and silver objects were shared around as gifts between the sultan and high-ranking civil and military dignitaries (Angelov p 489) Handsome and strong boy slaves were also sent to the barracks to become ‘janissaries.’
Describing the palace of Ottoman ruler Bayezid (1389-1402) in Brousse, historian Dorcas notes:
“there one could find carefully selected boys and girls, with beautiful faces, sweet young boys and girls who shone more brightly than the sun. To what nations did they belong? They were Byzantines, Serbs, Walachians, Albanians, Hungarians, Saxons, Bulgarians, and Latins. Each of them sang songs in his own language, although reluctantly. He himself (the sultan) unceasingly gave himself over to pleasure, to the point of exhaustion, by indulging in debauchery with these boys and girls” (Angelov p 489, Bulgaru p567)
Remember, Mohammad took the pretty girls for himself and to share out to friends (see parts A, B in this series)
The writings of the procurator of the court of the sultans (1433-1458) describes the ‘favourite youths,’ Christians and others numbering 400, kept in special conditions and guarded and trained to become the special loyal dignitaries, intimate with the sultan. And of course the harems of young girls..(Angelov p 494). Hence a tiny number of enslaved boys had the chance to become rich by attacking and plundering their own people or others or acting as administrators, providing they remained in the sultan’s intimate circle.
Most slaves laboured-farm work, building, rebuilding, digging, or they entertained or cleaned or served or provided a sexual service –they did everything while their Muslim rulers totally exploited them.
An enormous number of slaves flowed from the Crimea, the Balkans, and the steppes of West/central Asia into Islamic markets (Khan p 321, Bostom p 93). White males were often castrated, females bred Muslims.
Endless violence: A letter from Pope Eugene IV dated 1442 notes the Turkish conquest of Thrace, Macedonia, Illyria, Albania, Bulgaria, Slavonia and the taking of slaves who were bound in chains, and killed along the way if they could nolonger walk (Angelov p 491)
In response to Ottoman attacks on Byzantium, Emperor Manuel II (1391-1425) noted his conversation with a Persian Muslim scholar (dialogue 7, 26 dialogues with a Persian), stating:
Show me just what Mohammad brought that was new and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached ...god is not pleased by blood- and not acting reasonably is contrary to god’s nature. Faith is born of the soul, not of the body. Whoever would lead someone to faith needs the ability to speak well and to reason properly, without violence and threats...to convince a reasonable soul, one does not need a strong arm, or weapons of any kind, or any means of threatening a person with death... .(Sookhdeo p 256)
Remember the Muslim violence when Pope Benedict XVI quoted this in a lecture on the relationship between reason and faith, 12/9/2006, Germany. I defy anyone to show me a ‘prophet’ more perverted, sadistic, violent, misogynist, racist or intolerant than Mohammad who slaughtered any who defied him or wanted to leave.
In true Islamic fashion, beheadings were also popular with the Muslim Turks:
In 1396, the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I defeated a force of largely French Christian knights at Nicopolis (Bulgaria) and ordered that the 3000 who surrendered be decapitated:
“The next morning they were paraded before him, naked and in groups of 3 or 4. The mass beheadings began early in the morning and continued through the day”.(Sookhdeo p 158)
In 1499 Sultan Bayezid II after his conquer of Methone (Greece) ordered :
‘the execution of all those who were 10 years or older; and so it happened. They gathered their heads and bodies, put them together, and built a big tower outside the city, which can still be seen nowadays” (Chronicle cited in Bostom p 619)
No, he wasn’t just copying his earlier namesake, both were following the Koran! The Koran sanctions the beheading/throat slitting of infidels eg suras 47.4 (smite their necks) and 8.12 (smite over their necks)
And who can forget that great tale of Mohammad beheading all the males with pubic hair (700-900) (nd one woman) from the last Jewish tribe in Medina after they surrendered to him for the crime of remaining neutral in a battle; plus the usual enslavement of women and children, taking of concubines and property (Ishaq p 464-466).
Armenians were beheaded in the 1894-96 massacres (Bostom p 671).
Religiously sanctified beheading and throat slitting is big in Islam even today! Beheading occurs in the Islamic world now eg Saudi Arabia – where some 121 were beheaded in 2000, 75 in 2001, 50 in 2003 etc (Sookhdeo p 158); hostages have been beheaded and beheadings have also occurred in the west thanks to our Muslim immigrants.
Large-scale deportations and population transfers (surgun) accompanied the jihad campaigns of the Arabs, Seljuk and Ottoman Turks, and Safavides (Iran) (Bostom p 626). The practice removed recalcitrant groups, populated depopulated areas caused by Muslim attacks, and brought Muslims into areas to give support eg Turkmen from eastern Anatolia were moved and used as jihad warriors against Hungary and Austria and they were moved into Cyprus, Greece, and Serbia to help control Christian populations. Muslims were moved into Albania.
Armenia Christians, Orthodox Christians and Jews were forcibly settled in depopulated Constantinople-centre of Christian learning (taken 1453 –see date list for details) so the city could actually function and be fed. This is claimed as a sign of ‘Islamic tolerance’ and particularly kindness to Jews but don’t ask why Constantinople was depopulated in the first place and don’t enquire too deeply about the actual lives of dhimmitude led by the non-Muslims. We are told they were allowed to live with their own laws under the guidance of their patriarch.....there is no mention of the monumentally repressive dhimmitude laws (see articles on dhimmitude) that totally controlled them or the constant threat of death should they annoy a Muslim or the ban on open expression of their religion. As for the 'patriarchs', they were in effect agents of the Islamic rulers who kept the non-Muslim population under control, stopped rebellion or complaint and extracted the heavy taxes for their Muslim rulers. Hence people were detached from their family, country and history and subjected to total Islamic control and exploitation.
Unending Dhimmitude for the conquered people: (see articles on dhimmitude this site including laws)
Initially in some areas, vassals were used but eventually direct Ottoman rule generally occurred. There were constant battles and uprisings (see date list part H). Conquered people lived under the repression of Islam’s dhimmitude law and this continued into the 19th (or later) century. Many activities, occupations and trades were forbidden to Christians (Bostom p 66). In Sarajevo in 1794, the Serbian Orthodox church warned people not to sing anywhere as the village was Turk! (Bostom p 68) Efforts by European powers to moderate the abuse of Christians and other non-Muslims, was met with stern resistance (eg 19th century). In Islam, non-Muslims cannot be equals with Muslims.
The Greek revolution of 1821 was the culmination of the resistance to Muslim Ottoman domination which was:
“characterised by economic spoliation, intellectual decay and cultural retrogression........restrictions of all kinds, unlawful taxation, forced labour, persecutions, violence, imprisonment, death, abductions of girls and boys and their confinement to Turkish harems, and various deeds of wantonness and lust.......they defied every sense of human decency...(Vacalopoulos in Bostom p 69-70)
Efforts by European powers to abrogate the Ottoman dhimmi system weren’t implemented in any meaningful way between 1839 and the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after WW1. It was noted that Muslim Turkey still regarded others as inferior and the fanaticism of the early days continued. The 1860’s reports by British consuls (pals with Turkey!!) in the Ottoman Empire, reveal the continuing persecution of Christians, massive discrimination and judicial ‘imbalance.’ The Tanzimat reforms (1839-1876) were false eg the repressive, inequitable ‘poll tax’ was simply replaced by a new tax at a higher rate for non-Muslims! (Encyclopaedia Britannica V 13, p 786 which also notes that ‘reforms’ were ‘signed’ at times when Turkey needed European support- see part H). Turkish dhimmi laws may have been revoked on paper at the end of the 19th century, but the religiously supported attitudes and practices remained. The reforms failed because of Islam:
“the intense Muslim feeling which could sometimes burst into an open fanaticism....the innate attitude of superiority..Islam was a way of life......it prescribed man’s relations to man....and was the basis for society, for law and for government. Christians were therefore inevitably considered second-class citizens in the light of religious revelation....summed up in ...KAFIR, which means unbeliever or infidel with emotional and quite uncomplimentary overtones....Familiar association with heathens and infidels is forbidden to the people of Islam......equality was not attained in the Tanzimat period (1839-1876) nor after the YoungTurk revolution of 1908.” (Roderick Davidson in Bostom p 73-74)
Any attempt to emancipate the dhimmi people or claim equality resulted in extreme violence with massacres across the Ottoman empire –Turkey, Balkans, middle-East, into Africa eg Bulgarian massacres 1876; Armenian massacres 1894-1896, 1909 and outright genocide during WWI where possibly 1.5 million perished. The Balkan wars of Independence (1912-13) and the defeat in WWI halted Ottoman aggression and dhimmitude for the conquered people (but it begins again today in Turkey!).
As far as Muslims are concerned, any non-Muslim who failed to act submissively had no protection for his life, his family, his property etc which all became fair game for Muslims. 19th century Ottoman Grand vizier Mustafa Resid opposed the reforms claiming the complete emancipation of the non-Muslim subjects, appropriately destined to be subjugated and ruled, was entirely contradictory to the 600 year tradition of the Ottoman Empire. He predicted a great massacre if equality was granted to non-Muslims! (quoted in Durie p 159).
In Bosnia (and the Balkans in general) in the 19th century extreme discrimination against Christians remained –the honour, property or lives of Christians weren’t safe and the law didn’t protect Christians (Sookhdeo p 268)
In 1804, the Ottoman Janissaries massacred Serbian leaders, the ‘Massacre of the Serbia Knights,’ triggering an uprising against Turkish rule.(Durie p 158)
In 1850 - the sultan’s army put down resistance. Serbs and Croats continued under repressive dhimma regulations which were part of state legislation and an integral part of local political and economic conditions (Durie p 185)
1876: Ottomans’ massacre the Bulgarians: Modern Bulgarian historians estimate 30,000 murdered, with 3,000 orphaned children, thousands of Bulgarians imprisoned or exiled and 60-80 villages destroyed and another 200 hundred plundered and 300,000 livestock (cattle, sheep, goats) and countless personal goods taken as ‘booty’ from a defenceless population long exploited during centuries of oppressive Ottoman rule. A 1986 analysis found that the Ottomans seemed aware of the possible uprising and sent a variety of Muslim fighters not only against the rebels but against ordinary, unarmed civilians. Reports (1876) note that girls and women were stripped, gang-raped and usually killed, people were burnt alive, children ‘spitted’ on bayonets, pregnant women ripped open and their unborn baby killed...... (Bostom p 664-666)(see detail with eyewitness reports in date list part H.)
An Ottoman fatwa of 1915 –believed to be written by sheikh Shawish—entitled Aljihad (Holy war)-spells out in detail:
“the obligation to kill infidels, warns against befriending the foes of Islam, and demands Muslims arise to the holy war nomatter what it costs...war in secret –persecute and exterminate all unbelievers from the face of the earth; war by word of mouth –write and speak if more strident methods aren’t available; physical war...fighters and money to fight..and those who assist or die in battle are promised special rewards in heaven....He notes the prophet’s (Mohammad) demands for assassinations and says every Muslim can use deadly weapons and cites instances today...and where unbelievers outnumber Muslims, fight the war DECEITFULLY as Mohammad did and suggests this for the Caucasus, Turkistan, India, Java...secret raids on others...outright war. Muslims are told to arm and prepare and unite...and use politics ...and again, fight the unbelievers..”
He claims his war isn’t against all unbelievers ie those who don’t fight (just rollover into dhimmitude or convert) or rule Muslims--but since Islam claims the world...(Bostom p 221-225)
For the Armenians the genocide of 1915 was the culmination of endless massacres and attempts at destruction as Muslim Turks took over their land and worked to completely obliterate them. Massacres, marches, enslavement, rape, torture, pillage and burning preceded this horrendous death march that Turks (and weak western leaders) refuse to acknowledge even today.
Armenia was initially an area in West Asia, bordered by the Caucasus Mountains, the Black Sea, ‘Iran’, but now it is part of the SW SovietUnion, East Turkey, and NW Iran.
In the 7th century Arab incursions into Armenia started about 640 with Dvin sacked, 35,000 enslaved. And raids continued (see part F for some accounts). In the 11th century the Turks took over- Vaspourakan was ravaged, and Ardzen , a wealthy city of 800 churches was plundered and torched with 150,000 enslaved. The Seljuk Turks then the Ottoman/Osmanli Turks carried out endless attacks.
Tragically also Shia Muslims from ‘Persia’ slaughtered, enslaved, pillaged, burnt and forced Armenians into long deadly marches even into the 17th century.
In 1894 -1896 Muslims attacked Armenian villages and massacred inhabitants (the Hamidian massacres). Massacres first occurred in Sasun, Istanbul, Trebiznd, Erurum, Urfa. The Armenians, already paying tribute to the Kurds, refused to pay further tribute to the Turkish authorities in Sasun. Turkish troops, Kurds and the Muslim population slaughtered the Sasun Armenians, raped the females, dashed children to death and burnt down villages. The Turkish commander Zeki Pasha was rewarded by the sultan (Bostom p 667).
Britain, France and Russia were upset and demanded reforms...the sultan pretended to accept watered-down reforms with many paper promises – he needed help to stave off Russian interference re the Orthodox Christian ‘dhimmi’ populations of Greeks, Serbs, and Armenians and hoped for western support.
A series of organised massacres (beginning and ending with a bugle call) occurred throughout eastern Turkey in the Armenian areas with 50,000-100,000 killed and shops etc destroyed.(Bostom p 667- 669). Preaching from mosques encouraged the attackers and promised them the rewards of Armenian property as allah decreed.
In Urfa, koranic verses were recited before people had their throats slit and women and children were burnt alive (8 thousand died) (Bostom p 669-670).
Massacres also occurred at Ayintab, Birecik, and Severek in Aleppo Province: (Aleppo city today is in Syria just S of Turkish border). The report of the British consul notes re Ayintab
“the butchers and tanners, with sleeves tucked up to the shoulders, armed with clubs and cleaves, cut down the Christians , with cries of ‘allahu akbar.’.....then when mid-day came they knelt down and said their prayers, and then jumped up and resumed their dreadful work......they fired the houses with petroleum.”..(Bostom p 670)
Soldiers and Muslims participated in the massacres at Birecik and Severek where the sexton and pastor were beheaded. (Bostom p 671)
In 1909, Armenians were massacred in Alana (S. Turkey) killing 15,000-30,000. Assyrians and Greeks were also attacked. Please read the article "Slaughter of Christians in Asia Minor from the NYTimes 22/8/09 reproduced on this site 25/12/09 for the report of a witness to the aftermath -the sadism described by those who suffered it is trully distressing as is the utter destruction of villages.
1915-17: Armenian genocide: During WWI the ‘young Turks’ aimed to deport all Armenians from Anatolia to Mesopotamia—massacres, rape, kidnapping and looting accompanied the forced expulsion or DEATH MARCH along with starvation, illness, and even suicide. Eyewitness accounts verify the genocide.
The plight of the Armenians under centuries of vicious Islamic persecution is so utterly tragic. The fact that any Armenian Christians survive is a miracle.
The Balkan wars occurred in 1912-13 with the Ottomans losing Crete and Balkan states....
Due to the alliance of western Europeans with the Ottomans against Russian and Austrian designs, we have been subjected to propaganda that Jews and Christians were fine under Islamic rule eg writings by Bernard Lewis—which whitewashed the real, deeply horrifying truth (Durie p 207) so clearly revealed in writings from contemporaries to the events.
Failure to mention the historic truth of Islam’s bloody and repressive jihad and subjugation of others plays out in politics today. Bosnia president Alija Izetbegovic who claims Islamic tolerance, states in his Islamic declaration of 1970, that there cannot be peace or coexistence between the Islamic faith and non-Islamic social and political institutions...and that the Islamic movement must take power...destroy the existing non-Islamic power and build a new Islamic one!! (Ye’or Islam and Dhimmitude p 202) Yet the lie of Islamic tolerance lives on!
“to anyone with some knowledge of the centuries long history of Serbian resistance to Ottoman domination, it was obvious that the return of any form of Islamic power in Bosnia-Herzegovnia would be rejected by Orthodox Christian Serbs. The five centuries of ‘harmonious and peaceful co-existence’ under Islamic rule, cited by Bosnian president Alija Izetbegovic, belong to the theological dogma of the perfection of the sharia and the dhimma.
For the Orthodox Serbs, however, this same period is considered one of massacre, pillage, slavery, deportation, and exile of the Christian population. In their eyes it was a regime which found its justification in the usurpation of their land and denial of their rights; hence it represented the EXACT OPPOSITE of a peaceful, multicultural coexistence based on a system of social and political justice.............during WWII Axis forces invaded Yugoslavia and sponsored the creation of a Nazi Croat state (Ustashi) with which many Bosnian Muslims cooperated.....they formed military corps including the 13th (Hanjar) Waffen SS Division, some of which were trained in FRANCE. Early in the war, these Muslim slavs actively participated in the genocide of hundreds of thousands of Orthodox Serbs, Jews and gypsies. Even their German allies were shocked by the bestial atrocities committed then in Yugoslavia’
(Ye’or Islam and dhimmitude p 201)
The Muslims tried to pass blame to the Catholic Croats. Kosovo and Bosnia –Herzegovina are the Orthodox Serbian homeland. To Ye’or the war between Bosnian Muslims and Orthodox Serbs results from repressed history....with the Canadian UN commander noting the hatred between the two groups. Tragically the Bosnian ‘Muslims’ have forgotten their own history.
Bosnia was a battlefield or staging ground for attacks elsewhere eg Hungary. Bosnian Christians were forbidden from a wide array of commercial activities and trades –the only legal market/trading day was Sunday –and this was still the case into the late 19th century! As Christians were excessively taxed (jizya or poll tax is many times the zakat, plus other taxes) and forced into hard labour they fled to the mountains...In Herzegovina, in the 19th century, the vizier taxed the dead for 6 years after their demise and pregnant women claimed to be carrying boys were also made to pay! Muslims moved in and Bosnia became ‘Muslim’ while the restrictions imposed on dhimmis remained into the 19th century including clearly designated and marked clothing, towels (in bath houses), no singing even outside, and a myriad of acts of humiliation for the non-Muslims eg Catholics and members of the Serbian Orthodox Church. (Bostom p 66-68)
The oppression of Christians was monstrous...in an effort to live, some ‘converted’ to Islam and coercive mass conversion persisted for centuries –certainly through the 16th. When Muslims celebrated some victory, Christians (Albanians, Greeks, Slavs) were forced to covert (Bostom p 68) – Others resisted and fought at great cost. These fighters are heroes that gave Europe its freedom from the first peasants and town dwellers who fought to the last armies eg ‘Gates of Vienna’ where Polish king Jan Sobieski (ruled 1674-96) not only held out and fought the Muslims, weakening them so they were turned back from the Gates of Vienna (still with 80,000 slaves) but built a major European coalition that worked to destroy the Ottoman empire into the next century.
Kosovo and Albania (the original Albanians fought hard) along with Bosnia rolled over to Islam or were colonised by Muslims becoming ‘Muslim’ states that together form an ongoing threat in Europe and provide a gateway for Muslim entry along the Adriatic Coast. Kosovo in particular provides a recent example of an Islamic land grab (aided by the dopey and self destructive Europeans and America). The Kosovo liberation army was al-Queda trained, the claimed ‘genocide’ against Albanians in Kosovo was disproved in the Hague, though there was ethnic cleansing of Serbs, Jews, Roma and other non-Albanians from Kosovo--which is close to becoming an ethnically and religiously pure state of Saudi-financed mosques !
Kosovo is connected to the terrorist attacks in Madrid and London. According to Defence & Foreign Affairs Daily and German intelligence, the explosives used in both bombings came from Kosovo. The Greek Kathimerini news service reported that the missile fired on the U.S. embassy in Athens (2007) ‘appears to have come from Kosovo.’ Don’t forget WWII: Once the Germans took over Albania and Kosovo, Albanians volunteered to form the SS Skanderbeg Division (along with Bosnians), which committed atrocities against Serbs and Jews in Kosovo and helped round up Jews who died in concentration camps. In more recent history, Albanians pushed the Jews and non-Albanians OUT after NATO occupied Kosovo in 1999. Today, Albania and Kosovo are virtually Jew free (Gorin, 2007) and Christian Serbs in Kosovo?
Hence the forced ‘conversion’ and Muslim colonisation of what is today’s Bosnia, Albania and Kosovo has already had recent devastating consequences for others and they pose a deadly danger in Europe today.
From the beginning, the violence of the Muslims was obvious and the conquered people fought back. (see the date line part H). It should be noted that initially the Albanians fought hard against their Islamic attackers into the late 15th century. Does Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo still have people who prefer freedom to Islamic servitude?
To the end of the 19th century, where the Turks had control, Christians could be accused of anything...and killed. There was no liberty of conscience. Religious persecution was NEVER absent. Justice applied a double standard and depended on Muslim judges and crowds. The claimed policy of religious tolerance by the Ottomans is NOT supported by the facts (Constantelos in Bostom p 68-69)
Isn’t it time the history of those crushed by Islam was truly told from the view of Islam’s victims. The Greeks, Bulgarians, Romanians, Serbs, Hungarians, and Poles fought long and hard at great cost for freedom from Islamic rule. Some just rolled over and became Muslim or suffered too much Islamic colonisation. Why do Turks and others follow a ‘white’ Arab supremacist religion that enslaved them?
Further ‘Turkish’ Muslim writings in the 20th century show the open hostility of Islam to others eg:
“A Christian...lost to all sense of human dignity. ....the meanest expression of human degradation; to speak to him would by a humiliation for our intelligence and an insult....the presence of such miscreants among us is the bane of our existence...their doctrine is a direct insult.....contact with them is a defilement of our bodies; any relation with them a torture to our souls....and goes on to explain how they will take our weapons etc given through our own agency... (Progressive young Turk in Parisian Muslim review 1912 cited in Bostom p 74)
Nothing has changed! Even today there are attempts by powerful groups to obliterate all Christians (Ego, 2009). Islam cannot change as Muslims must follow its evil text. Muslim Turkey today returns to fanatical Islam and works to obliterate all others. The INSANITY of allowing Turkey into the EU should be obvious to any who value freedom and know their history!!
Muslim Crimean Tartars: (1463-1694) while sources are incomplete, researcher Alan fisher ‘s conservative tabulation of the slave raids against the Christian populations of southern Poland and Muscovite Russia indicate that at least 3 MILLION people-men, women, children were enslaved during the ‘harvesting of the steppe.’ Numbers could be huge eg from Moscow (1521), 800,000 were taken and from Valynia (1676), 400,000 were taken.
He notes the fast, long march in chains to the Crimea to avoid cassocks who freed the slaves. Those who couldn’t keep up were killed –often given to Tartar youths to stone, throw into the sea or kill in any way they liked. The mortality rate was high. (Bostom p 91-92)
Crimean tartars also enslaved and sold Ukranians, Armenians, Circassians, Georgians, Bulgarians, Slavs and Turks.
‘Oh how much better to lie on one’s brier, than to be a captive on the way to tartary.” (Bostom p 92)
(Tartary is used to refer to an indefinite region in E.Europe/Asia)
Fisher’s list from the sources available so far gives dates, places and slave numbers from 1463 to 1694. Sometimes the numbers are small-under 100 but most often they are in the thousands, tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands (Bostom p 679-681). To read them is utterly distressing, to know there are Muslim apologists hiding or excusing them is even worse!
It’s thanks to the Polish king, Jan Sobieski (ruled 1674-96) who fought the Muslims and formed a European coalition, that Muslim progress into Europe was halted for the second and final time at the Gates of Vienna in 1683.
Shiite Safavids: they were also involved in slave raids eg Shah Tahmasp (died 1576) and Shah Abbas (1588-1626) into Christian Georgia, and Armenian areas of the Caucasus -Georgian, Armenian, Circassian s were enslaved in large numbers and converted to shia Islam –or you were slaughtered! In 1553, Georgia was attacked with 30,000 women and children enslaved . Other successful campaigns occurred in 1540,1546, 1551. (Khan p 323).
In 1604, Shah Abbas I demanded that people and possessions be deported from Armenia so the Ottomans would have nothing when they came. Nothing was left and those that refused to go were killed. Homes and buildings, grain stores etc were burnt and areas pillaged. The Persians drove the people ahead...beating them, cutting off ears, noses, and heads and putting them on posts! They were tortured to make them hurry and driven into the river with many swept away. Children were taken, abused and thrown on the road as they were marched to Persia. Then they went and brutally captured those Christians that had hidden. From a high cave where some hid, Christians were thrown to their death while others chose to jump rather than be slaughtered or raped and enslaved. A huge area of beautiful Armenia was depopulated. Further expeditions took animals, and enslaved more. People were made to carry goods when even the animals had died. (Bostom p 622-626)
By the 18th century fewer slaves came from the Caucasus while more came from Africa via the Persian gulf. 18th century courts still had thousands of slaves including white and black eunuchs. Slave raids continued in the 20th century eg the steppes, parts of Persia and Africa.(Bostom p 88-89).
Slavery is a humiliation that arises from infidelity. (Bostom p 89)
Jews; aren’t we constantly told that the Jews fared well under the Arabs in Spain and the Ottoman’s yet manuscripts and new research (presumably not from our universities funded by Arab oil money) present a different picture. Several Jewish communities disappeared..eg Salonica and were founded anew by Spanish Jewish immigrants. A letter written by a Jew before 1470 shows their fate was no different to that of the Christians. –they were killed, enslaved, forcibly converted and children were taken and subjected to the devshirme. Other letters reveal the same including exile, forced movement –particularly to Constantinople/Istanbul-and fleeing. There was strong anti-Ottoman feeling among some Byzantine Jewish circles. In Constantinople Mehmed II (1451-1481) gave protection for Jews (from popular hatred!) to ‘repopulate’ destroyed Constantinople (1453) but the policy wasn’t continued and in reality Jews like others lived under the repressive dhimmi laws. Bayezid II did accept Spanish Jewery and because of these two instances, writers “overlook both the destruction that Byzantine Jewry suffered during the Ottoman conquests and the later outbursts of oppression under both Bayezid II and Selim I.” (Bostom p 65). No doubt a few Jews helped the Nazis—so were the Nazis good for the Jews?
In reality, where Muslim Turkish rule existed, dhimmitude with all its horrendous repressive laws prevailed (see articles on dhimmitude..this site). Dhimmis were inferior and kept inferior in every conceivable away in accordance with sharia.
A Brief history of the Seljuk and Ottoman Turks and Tartars:
As it expanded east, the Islamic empire collided with the Turkic tribes of Central Asia constantly moving towards the Middle East. Many were enslaved , others ‘converted’ eg Turks, Tartars, Turkomen, even Mongols and Afghans were subjugated. Turkish slaves and mercenary troops administered and guarded Arab Islamic controlled provinces (9th century on). Their Arab conquerors liked Turk ‘bravery’ and acquired them in droves as slaves. Turkish slave mercenaries numbered 70,000 and their tyranny, lawlessness and power grew. In the 9th and 10th centuries, “Turkish soldiers made and murdered caliphs at their pleasure” yet they were still slaves who paid tribute to the sultan although they set up independent sultanates eg Egypt (Lal p 533).
They became important frontline soldiers of Islam’s expansion into the Byzantine Empire, leading to the rise of the Seljuk sultanate (Mid 11th century). The Seljuks attacked Byzantine Anatolia particularly in the 11th century under Alp Arslan (1064-1072) and ‘colonised’ the area. Armenia was conquered and the Seljuks took control of much of Asia Minor. The Byzantines controlled Constantinople and the Asia Minor coastlands. Turkic slave soldiers (Mamelukes) from Egypt were important in fighting the crusades. Ghengis Khan , ruler of the Mongols invaded Muslim areas in Central Asia, and Iran, reaching Baghdad in 1258. An Egyptian ‘mameluke’ army stopped the Mongols in Syria.(Sookhdeo p227-228) Following Ghengis Khan’s death, his sons controlled vast groups and areas. Some quickly, others more slowly converted to Islam---why not when you love to kill, rape, enslave and plunder, Islam is the perfect religion because now you can claim you do it all for god and your soldiers can be tricked into thinking that god gives them booty (people and property) and that if they die they will have a huge brothel in paradise...yes that would sell well to the barbaric hordes! Hence areas in Central Asia, Russia and Iran became ‘Islamic.’
The Seljuks split into independent principalities in Asia Minor. Osman (1288-1326) (Othman or Ottoman to us) ruled one of these principalities and declared independence of Seljuk rule around 1300. They were dedicated jihardists constantly fighting the infidel-(Sookhdeo p 231) --and happily taking the booty allah promised while putting into practice the wonderful example of Mohammad (slavery, slaughter, forced conversion, subjugation, extortion..).
Ottoman power increased until they totally subjugated Asia minor (including Seljuk controlled areas and challenges from other Muslim Turk groups in Asia Minor) and spread out in their jihad through the Balkans and Europe, east and central Asia, the middle-east and north Africa.
The religious fanatic Timurlane (ruled 1370-1405) was a Muslim Turkic-Mongol who attacked Anatolia, Syria, Central Asia, and north India but died before attacking China. His Timurid Empire lasted to 1506. He battled the Ottoman leader Bayezid (their bid for power overlapped in certain areas) and won in 1402—but left Anatolia to the Ottomans and didn’t interfere in the Ottoman’s European empire. (more on Timur/Tamerlane in article on Indian slavery).
By the 17th century there were 3 large Muslim empires-the sunni Ottoman empire in Asia Minor, the Middle East, north Africa and Europe; the Shi’a Safavid Empire in Iran and parts of central Asia and the Caucasus, the sunni Mughal Empire in northern India. (Sookhdeo p 228)
The detail of the Ottoman barbarity across Asia Minor, the Balkans and the Byzantine world can be read in the date list part H in this series on slavery. Constantinople was violently taken in 1453 (see list). Their unending brutality to the Armenians beggars belief. They also conquered Syria, Egypt, Anatolia, Mesopotamia and most of North Africa (not Morocco). They tried to take Central Europe, TWICE reaching the Gates of Vienna-1529, 1683!! (Sookhdeo p 232)
Ottomans remained in power for centuries. They used slave troops-first the kapikullari, then the Janissaries (Yenicheri) made up of slaves taken in war or children taken under the Devshirme system to maintain their control for many centuries. Children are taken because they can easily be converted into Islam—‘an act of mercy’ for according to Muslims we are all members of the perverted, sadistic, racist, intolerant, totalitarian ideology of Islam. Allowing the conquered people to bring children up outside Islam is a ‘concession’ while jihad provides an ‘opportunity’ through enslavement and conversion to Islam for children (and adults) to be made Muslim! Under sharia, such ‘converts’ of course, cannot be in the care/custody of non-Muslims (see Durie p 162-163).
As Muslim power failed, they were compelled to enter into treaties with Europe. Eg 17th, 19th century. (Sookhdeo p 231-233)
Janissaries: a new army Yeni Tcheri (new troops):
This was a dire calamity, a constant bleeding for Christians conquered by the Osmanlis/Ottomans.
Enslaved children and the blood-tax of children went to the janissaries. The general ‘system’ was instituted in the reign of Orhan (1330) with recruitment becoming regular under Murad II (1421-1451) who ‘reorganised’ the ‘New troops’ or Janissaries. Large numbers were taken in the 15th and 16th century but continued into later centuries. (Papoulia p 561). From the mid 14th century to the early 18th century, some 500,000 to 1 million boys (primarily Balkan Christian) (Bostom p 70) were enslaved or taken from their families in the Devshirme system, forcibly converted to Islam, raised in special barracks and trained to kill their own countrymen and others, to control the population and carryout further conquests for allah.
Janissaries were completely alienated from their origins and possibly felt guilty and ‘conflicted’ about being born Christian while still alienated from their foreign Muslim controlling environment. Such internal conflict and Islamic training explain the violence and sadism displayed by Janissaries. They had been dehumanised and separated from normal human relations, family and country and were totally dependent on the good will of the ruler, their master. The psychological destruction required to ‘convert’ these boys defies imagination. There is scant information available but some suggestion that some tried to hold on to their beliefs and ideas of home and rejected Islam (Papoulia p 558). For parents, “heart rending sorrow” as their children were worse than dead! (1585 Chronicle in Papoulia p 559)
Military slavery was highly developed in Islam where aliens were formed into an imperial bodyguard given privileges while directly dependent on the ruler (Papoulia p 557). It may have been safer for the ruler to give certain of these ‘slaves’ apparent power denied to ‘competing’ Muslims. Janissaries are a ‘ruling class’ of mindless, dependent guard dogs –held together by an artificial ‘brotherhood’ as all else is denied or has been obliterated.
Janissaries show the evil, sadistic impact of Islamic religious training on young minds (did Islamic sadism influence Vlad Dracula?) and we see it today throughout Islam eg Palestinian hate training for children, our little genocide threatening Muslim girl with her genocide sign in Melbourne streets 2009 (see Genocide tot this site).
It is beyond disgusting that we have people who try to sell the Janissaries as a wonderful form of social advancement on the grounds that some of these boys, with their minds twisted by Islam and their family and heritage ripped from them, became powerful in administration or in murder, amassing great booty eg Mahmoud Pasha—Serbian mother, Greek father –captured as a child and taken to the sultan’s court. He was an ‘intimate’ of the sultan Mahomet II and carried out devastating attacks on his own people and others.
Reality: These Christians refused to convert, hence they didn’t seek the advantages of being Muslim.
Families hated this sadistic Muslim system—Christians gave up land rather than their children.
As a privilege (not a punishment), Christians whose special skills were needed could be exempted from handing over their children (ie losing your children was punishment for not converting);
Families fled leaving areas depopulated;
Families married children off early to stop them being taken....sometimes they even mutilated their child so they wouldn’t be taken!
Families who refused to surrender their children were hung/executed;
Children tried to escape...though returned when they heard their family was being tortured to death.
Some parents abducted their children. Others bribed officials. Some bought children or exchanged them (sometimes with poor Muslims).
In extreme cases the very poor thought their child might do better as they couldn’t support them (these were exceptions). (Papoulia p 560)
This system may have rendered some ‘immobile’ but for others it stirred such hatred of the Muslim Turks that it stirred uprisings despite the massive disadvantages of ordinary people. (Papoulia p555)
*In 1565 Christians in Epirus (country in ancient Greece) and Albania rebelled, killing recruitment officers and were forcibly put down by a large Janissary army.
*In 1705 people in Naousa (Greece) again killed the ‘collectors’ and fled to the mountains...those caught were killed. (Bostom 70-72, Papoulia p559).
Others hid in the mountains forming the liberation armies of the Christian population in later centuries determined to remove Muslim Turkish repression.
Jihad and slavery are intimately linked---the devshirme was just a specialised form of slavery, a consequence of conquest by force and penalisation for the resistance of the population. They were just casualties of war and there was a permanent state of war. Greek text describes the children as ‘seized’, captured’ or grabbed.’(Papoulia p 560).
Is Vlad III Dracula (1431-1476) a result of exposure to Islamic violence?
Vlad was born to Vlad Dracul king of Wallachia (Rumania). He is noted for 2 things—his hatred and resistance to the Ottomans and his cruel punishments. I believe both are related.
His father had several attempts at ‘ reigning.’ Vlad III was given a good education in German, Latin, Slavic geography, mathematics, science, classical arts and philosophy etc from Rumanian and Greek scholars.
Tragically his father lost the throne and required Ottoman assistance (though he promised to fight the Ottomans) to regain it in 1442. He agreed to pay a tribute and his younger sons Vlad (about 11-12) and Radu were sent to the Ottoman court as hostages. While pretty Radu caught the eye of the sultan’s son Mehmed II and headed to court, Vlad was imprisoned and whipped. He hated the others and his father for betraying his ‘dragon’ oath to fight the Turks.
Despite this, following the death of his father and older brother, the Ottomans invaded and put Vlad on the throne (1447-1448). Vlad was toppled initially fleeing to Moldavia then to ‘enemy’ Hungary where he advised the ruler as he had a vast knowledge and understanding of the Ottomans.
Following the conquest of Constantinople 1453, the Ottomans spread towards Hungary and Serbia. Vlad fought for Wallachia retaking control. The country was in a poor state and he didn’t trust the nobility, replacing them with others.
Vlad refused to pay tribute to the Ottomans—and fought them eg 1461-62 in the area between Serbia and the Black Sea.
Sultan Mehmed II raised a huge army and headed to Wallachia but was greeted by stakes with 20,000 Muslim prisoners impaled –though slowed the Turks still entered Targoviste (capital). Vlad organised small attacks, and the Ottomans left.
Vlad was undone by his pretty brother Radu, supported by the Ottomans, who appealed to the ousted nobility and the leader of Hungary, toppling Vlad in 1462, making Radu ruler.
As the Ottoman army led by Radu surrounded the castle, Vlad’s first wife threw herself from the tower into a tributary rather than be taken by the Turks.
After release from captivity in Hungary, Vlad again took the throne—1476- but died in battle against the Ottomans near Bucharest in 1476. Supposedly he was decapitated and his head sent to Constantinople for display on a stake.
Vlad ‘s punishments for those he regarded as enemies or criminals and for Muslim Turks was certainly sadistic....but where did he learn them? Was it from his own cruel imprisonment under the Ottomans and his exposure to the extreme sadism they practised ? (Plenty of Vlad stories are available on the internet)
Why are we horrified by Vlad who acted for a short time in a limited area and say nothing about the far greater evil of Islam (Turkish, Arabic, Berber, Shia, Moghal or Tartar) that still spreads around the world and has operated for centuries?
The repressed history of the persecution of others in Asia Minor and the Balkans, particularly by the jihadi Ottomans must be told for its ramifications continue today.
As in Western Europe, the Muslims brought destruction on many fronts. The writings of both Muslim and non-Muslims at the time show the claimed ‘blessing’ brought to the population who now lived in ‘peace and tranquillity’ under Islamic rule is a LIE. Such writers show the massive destruction of material goods, the ruination of entire cities and cultivated areas, massacres, deportations, enslavement, sadism ...a general and lasting decline in productivity, social/cultural destruction, retrogression and the hindrance of the normal evolution and transfer of knowledge of the society and the imposition of dhimmitude. The Turks were semibarbarian and backward and developed a brutal feudal system of economic exploitation.
European advances in political and military organisation, science, technology, etc were unknown to the Ottomans (Encyclopaedia Britannica p 783). Muslims lived off the back of others via exploitative taxes. Greeks and Armenians controlled 80% of Ottoman finance, industry and commerce in 1914. If it hadn’t been for Mustafa Kemal (Attaturk), post WW1 who removed Islam from public life and worked to modernize the nation, Turkey would have remained extremely backward—even in 1945, it’s literacy rate had RISEN to 29% as a result of educational reforms!!! (Encyclopaedia Britannica v 13 p 792). While there are some Turks who are nominally Muslim and who support secularism and religious freedom the reality is that Turkey is returning to fanatical Islam which has only hatred, repression and slavery for others. Will it once again attempt to conquer Europe? If the EU admits Turkey they will dangerously flood Europe with Muslims, offer a path for further Muslim entry and bleed others dry by soaking up all resources---after all, non-Muslims are there to work and provide for the Muslim overlords! Will Islamic Turkey aim to control the whole Islamic world (or the whole world?)—in the 19th century the Arab Wahhabis mocked the Ottoman’s (Encyclopaedia Britannica v13 p 785).
*Bukhari Volume 4, Book 52, Number 179: Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "The Hour will not be established until you fight with the Turks; ...
Turks were the slaves of Arab Islam; Why do they adhere to Islam?
Time to ensure everyone knows the terrifying truth of Islam’s brutal past so it isn’t repeated in the future.
- Angelov, Dimitar. ‘Certain phases of the conquest of the Bulkan peoples by the Turks’ p462-517 in Bostom (2)
- Bostom, A. G. ‘The Legacy of Jihad: Islamic holy war and the fate of the non-Muslims.’ Prometheus Books. New York. 2005.
- Bulgaru, M.M. Alexandrescu-Dersca; ‘The role of slaves in 15th century Turkish Romania’ p 566-572 in Bostom (2)
- Durie, M. ‘The third choice: Islam dhimmitude and freedom’ Deror Books, China. 2010 (Available Feb. 2010)
- Ego, Dikran. 'Recent Turkish Military Planned Attacks on Christians." Nov. 29, 2009 http://www.christiansofiraq.com/recentturkish-officersplannedattacksonchristians.html
- Encyclopaedia Britannica Vol 13 p 771-796 15th edition. 1982 Printed in the USA.
- Gorin, Julia. Radical Islam’s Dupes. FrontPageMagazine.com | 2/14/2007
- Ishaq, Ibn. ‘Sirat Rusulallah’ by Ibn Ishaq Translated by A. Guillaume. Fifteenth Impression, 2001 Published by Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan.
- Khan, M. A. ‘Islamic Jihad: A legacy of forced conversion, imperialism and slavery.’ iUniverse, Bloomington, IN. 2009.
- Papoulia, Vasiliki. ‘The impact of Devishirme on Greek society’ p 555-565 in Bostom (2)
- Sookhdeo, P. ‘Global Jihad: The future in the face of Militant Islam.’ Isaac Publishing. 2007.
- Ye’or, Bat. ‘Islam and Dhimmitude: Where civilisations collide’ translated from the French by Miriam Kochan and David Littman. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press 2002, reprint 2005.
Both Bostom and Ye’or use many quotes and writings from chroniclers (Muslim and non-Muslim), letters, travellers views, diplomat’s reports and other contemporary evidence.